“If a storm hits us, we need to have a plan”
These are project manager Timo Uustal’s words. This is a story about how a storm upended a society, ultimately forcing them to take action and protect themselves.
“It was a real wake-up call for us,” says Timo.
It's 9 January, 2005. For three days, a storm has caused massive damage across western Estonia with wind speeds reaching 30 meters per second. Around 300 people are evacuated, 775 houses are damaged and eleven people diagnosed with hypothermia. On the west coast one woman drowns. In the Pärnu city area, 8 km² is flooded.
How climate change affects businesses and tourism
“The whole country was in shock; we weren’t prepared for weather like this,” says Timo.
After the storm, Estonia understood the need for a plan on how to handle extreme weather. With money from Iceland, Lichtenstein and Norway, they established an adaptation strategy containing an action plan focused on preparing and responding to climate change.
“We are the first country in the EU to fully implement the guidelines of the European council on developing climate change adaptation strategies. We are quite unique in having an action plan in a range of different sectors, says Timo.
In 2011 in Tartu County, Estonia, storm Quirin damaged 20 cars. Photo credit: Ministry of Environment
From the Ministry of Environment in Tallinn, project manager Timo reached out to 200 scientists from various sectors. Together they collected two thousand pages of data within a two-year period. The data depicts how rapid climate change may affect everything from Estonian business, agriculture, food and traffic, to life expectancy, energy and tourism.
“Climate change impacts the whole society; we are pioneers by including areas such as economy and industry in the adaptation strategy,” says Timo.
The team behind the adaptation strategy: From the left; Reeli Jakobi, Timo Uustal, Igor Miilvee and Krista Tõnisson. Photo Credit: Maria Knoph Vigsnaes
Are we adapting fast enough?
Increasing global temperatures is a hot topic in the public debate. Extreme weather is one of the strongest indicators of climate change, but when we want to measure more than just the numbers and learn about the human impact, how can we? How many deaths have been caused by climate change during the past years? » says project expert, Igor Miilvee.
The scientists condensed the data into a fifty-page climate change adaptation strategy. The document is now being processed in the Estonian Parliament.
“Even though we have a plan, it’s difficult to change people’s mindset; we tend to not act before it affects our own lives. The question is: ‘Are we adapting fast enough?’, and the answer is ‘No’, humans are not keeping up with the speed of change,” says Igor.
This poster predicts the consequences of rising temperatures and how they affect food safety, health, fauna and tourism. Photo Credit: The Ministry of Environment.
Confusing plants and birds
Timo starts drawing lines depicting winds on the blackboard, in order to show the changes that have happened to winds from the West.
“As humans we adjust for a certain time but birds and plants are getting confused already. The birds used to fly with the western winds to warmer places during the winter. However, they now struggle to find the wind and can miss one month of flying, which in a bird-life is a matter of life or death. And the plants’ circle of life also get confused by warmer weather,” says Timo.
The project was part of the integrated marine and inland water management programme, of which the objective is to reduce human and ecosystem vulnerability to climate change. The project team cooperated with the Norwegian Directorate for Civil Protection (DSB) which contributed with their experience of integrating climate change adaptation into civil protection and emergency management.
“We arranged great study trips to Bergen and Voss for inspiration and to see some examples of good adaptation. We hope the strategy will contribute a long-lasting impact on all sectors, not just on paper,” says Timo.
We have other interesting projects in Estonia financed through the EEA and Norway Grants. Read more about them here:
Elaboration of Estonia’s Draft National Climate Change Adapation Strategy (NAS) and Action Plan
Estonian Environmental Research Centre
Type of Institution:
Small or medium sized enterprise (SME)
The project is neede, because Estonia does not currently have a national climate change adaptation strategy (NAS). The objective of the project is to draft Estonian National Climate Change Adapation Strategy (NAS) and Action Plan. The goal of the strategy is that in future climate change should be considered and integrated into planning and development in the most appropriate way. Sector-specific analysis would develop adaptation measures, presented in priority order as well as with estimations of indicative cost of proposed adaptation measures, enabling local, regional and national authorities to take appropriate actions in good time. Direct beneficiary is Ministry of the Environment and indirectly all people living in Estonia. Norwegian Directorate for Civil Protection (DSB) is reviewing project documents (projections on climate change scenarios and the content and requirements of procurement documents) and supporting with risk and vulnerability assessment methodology. Successful knowledge and experiences transfer from Norway to Estonia in the field of climate change.